The Accra Confession
What is the Accra Confession?
The Accra Confession is a confession of faith by Reformed Christian, which was adopted by the delegates of the 24th General Council of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004). It is based on the theological conviction that the economic and ecological injustices of today’s global economy require the Reformed family to respond as a matter of faith in the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
Covenanting for Justice in the Economy and the Earth
Here is the Accra Confession or the Covenanting for Justice in the Economy and
the Earth as agreed by General Council.
1. In response to the urgent call of the Southern African constituency which met in Kitwe
in 1995 and in recognition of the increasing urgency of global economic injustice and
ecological destruction, the 23rd General Council (Debrecen, Hungary, 1997) invited the
member churches of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches to enter into a process of
“recognition, education, and confession (processus confessionis)”. The churches reflected
on the text of Isaiah 58.6 “…break the chains of oppression and the yoke of injustice, and
let the oppressed go free,” as they heard the cries of brothers and sisters around the
world and witnessed God’s gift of creation under threat.
2. Since then, nine member churches have committed themselves to a faith stance;
some are in the process of covenanting; and others have studied the issues and come to
a recognition of the depth of the crisis. Further, in partnership with the World Council of
Churches, the Lutheran World Federation and regional ecumenical organizations, the
World Alliance of Reformed Churches has engaged in consultations in all regions of the
world, from Seoul/Bangkok (1999) to Stony Point (2004). Additional consultations took
place with churches from the South in Buenos Aires (2003) and with churches from
South and North in London Colney (2004).
3. Gathered in Accra, Ghana, for the General Council of the World Alliance of Reformed
Churches, we visited the slave dungeons of Elmina and Cape Coast where millions of
Africans were commodified, sold and subjected to the horrors of repression and death.
The cries of “never again” are put to the lie by the ongoing realities of human trafficking
and the oppression of the global economic system.
4. Today we come to take a decision of faith commitment.
Reading the Signs of the Times
5. We have heard that creation continues to groan, in bondage, waiting for its liberation
(Romans 8.22). We are challenged by the cries of the people who suffer and by the
woundedness of creation itself. We see a dramatic convergence between the suffering of
the people and the damage done to the rest of creation.
6. The signs of the times have become more alarming and must be interpreted. The root
causes of massive threats to life are above all the product of an unjust economic system
defended and protected by political and military might. Economic systems are a matter of
life or death.
7. We live in a scandalous world that denies God’s call to life for all. The annual income of
the richest 1% is equal to that of the poorest 57%, and 24,000 people die each day from
poverty and malnutrition. The debt of poor countries continues to increase despite paying
back their original borrowing many times over. Resource-driven wars claim the lives of
millions, while millions more die of preventable diseases. The HIV and AIDS global
pandemic afflicts life in all parts of the world, affecting the poorest where generic drugs
are not available. The majority of those in poverty are women and children and the
number of people living in absolute poverty on less that one US dollar per day continues
8. The policy of unlimited growth among industrialized countries and the drive for profit
of transnational corporations have plundered the earth and severely damaged the
environment. In 1989, one species disappeared each day, and by 2000 it was one every
hour. Climate change, the depletion of fish stocks, deforestation, soil erosion, and threats
to fresh water are among the devastating consequences. Communities are disrupted,
livelihoods are lost, coastal regions and Pacific islands are threatened with inundation,
and storms increase. High levels of radioactivity threaten health and ecology. Life forms
and cultural knowledge are being patented for financial gain.
9. This crisis is directly related to the development of neoliberal economic globalization,
which is based on the following beliefs:
unrestrained competition, consumerism, and the unlimited economic growth and
accumulation of wealth is the best for the whole world;
the ownership of private property has no social obligation;
capital speculation, liberalization and deregulation of the market, privatization of public
utilities and national resources, unrestricted access for foreign investments and imports,
lower taxes, and the unrestricted movement of capital will achieve wealth for all;
social obligations, protection of the poor and the weak, trade unions, and relationships
between people, are subordinate to the processes of economic growth and capital
10. This is an ideology that claims to be without alternative, demanding an endless flow
of sacrifices from the poor and creation. It makes the false promise that it can save the
world through the creation of wealth and prosperity, claiming sovereignty over life and
demanding total allegiance, which amounts to idolatry.
11. We recognize the enormity and complexity of the situation. We do not seek simple
answers. As seekers of truth and justice and looking through the eyes of powerless and
suffering people, we see that the current world (dis)order is rooted in an extremely
complex and immoral economic system defended by empire. In using the term “empire”
we mean the coming together of economic, cultural, political and military power that
constitutes a system of domination led by powerful nations to protect and defend their
12. In classical liberal economics, the state exists to protect private property and
contracts in the competitive market. Through the struggles of the labour movement,
states began to regulate markets and provide for the welfare of people. Since the 1980s,
through the transnationalization of capital, neoliberalism has set out to dismantle the
welfare functions of the state. Under neoliberalism the purpose of the economy is to
increase profits and return for the owners of production and financial capital, while
excluding the majority of the people and treating nature as a commodity.
13. As markets have become global, so have the political and legal institutions which
protect them. The government of the United States of America and its allies, together
with international finance and trade institutions (International Monetary Fund, World
Bank, World Trade Organization) use political, economic, or military alliances to protect
and advance the interest of capital owners.
14. We see the dramatic convergence of the economic crisis with the integration of
economic globalization and geopolitics backed by neoliberal ideology. This is a global
system that defends and protects the interests of the powerful. It affects and captivates
us all. Further, in biblical terms such a system of wealth accumulation at the expense of
the poor is seen as unfaithful to God and responsible for preventable human suffering
and is called Mammon. Jesus has told us that we cannot serve both God and Mammon
Confession of Faith in the Face of Economic Injustice and Ecological Destruction
15. Faith commitment may be expressed in various ways according to regional and
theological traditions: as confession, as confessing together, as faith stance, as being
faithful to the covenant of God. We choose confession, not meaning a classical doctrinal
confession, because the World Alliance of Reformed Churches cannot make such a
confession, but to show the necessity and urgency of an active response to the
challenges of our time and the call of Debrecen. We invite member churches to receive
and respond to our common witness.
16. Speaking from our Reformed tradition and having read the signs of the times, the
General Council of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches affirms that global economic
justice is essential to the integrity of our faith in God and our discipleship as Christians.
We believe that the integrity of our faith is at stake if we remain silent or refuse to act in
the face of the current system of neoliberal economic globalization and therefore we
confess before God and one another.
17. We believe in God, Creator and Sustainer of all life, who calls us as partners in the
creation and redemption of the world. We live under the promise that Jesus Christ came
so that all might have life in fullness (Jn 10.10). Guided and upheld by the Holy Spirit we
open ourselves to the reality of our world.
18. We believe that God is sovereign over all creation. “The earth is the Lord’s and the
fullness thereof” (Psalm 24.1).
19. Therefore, we reject the current world economic order imposed by global neoliberal
capitalism and any other economic system, including absolute planned economies, which
defy God’s covenant by excluding the poor, the vulnerable and the whole of creation from
the fullness of life. We reject any claim of economic, political, and military empire which
subverts God’s sovereignty over life and acts contrary to God’s just rule.
20. We believe that God has made a covenant with all of creation (Gen 9.8-12). God has
brought into being an earth community based on the vision of justice and peace. The
covenant is a gift of grace that is not for sale in the market place (Is 55.1). It is an
economy of grace for the household of all of creation. Jesus shows that this is an
inclusive covenant in which the poor and marginalized are preferential partners, and calls
us to put justice for the “least of these” (Mt 25.40) at the centre of the community of life.
All creation is blessed and included in this covenant (Hos2.18ff).
21. Therefore we reject the culture of rampant consumerism and the competitive greed
and selfishness of the neoliberal global market system, or any other system, which
claims there is no alternative.
22. We believe that any economy of the household of life, given to us by God’s covenant
to sustain life, is accountable to God. We believe the economy exists to serve the dignity
and well being of people in community, within the bounds of the sustainability of
creation. We believe that human beings are called to choose God over Mammon and that
confessing our faith is an act of obedience.
23. Therefore we reject the unregulated accumulation of wealth and limitless growth that
has already cost the lives of millions and destroyed much of God’s creation.
24. We believe that God is a God of justice. In a world of corruption, exploitation, and
greed, God is in a special way the God of the destitute, the poor, the exploited, the
wronged, and the abused (Psalm 146.7-9). God calls for just relationships with all
25. Therefore we reject any ideology or economic regime that puts profits before people,
does not care for all creation, and privatizes those gifts of God meant for all. We reject
any teaching which justifies those who support, or fail to resist, such an ideology in the
name of the gospel.
26. We believe that God calls us to stand with those who are victims of injustice. We
know what the Lord requires of us: to do justice, love kindness, and walk in God’s way
(Micah 6.8). We are called to stand against any form of injustice in the economy and the
destruction of the environment, “so that justice may roll down like waters, and
righteousness like an ever-flowing stream” (Amos 5.24).
27. Therefore we reject any theology that claims that God is only with the rich and that
poverty is the fault of the poor. We reject any form of injustice which destroys right
relations – gender, race, class, disability, or caste. We reject any theology which affirms
that human interests dominate nature.
28. We believe that God calls us to hear the cries of the poor and the groaning of
creation and to follow the public mission of Jesus Christ who came so that all may have
life and have it in fullness (Jn 10.10). Jesus brings justice to the oppressed and gives
bread to the hungry; he frees the prisoner and restores sight to the blind (Lk 4.18); he
supports and protects the downtrodden, the stranger, the orphans and the widows.
29. Therefore we reject any church practice or teaching which excludes the poor and care
for creation, in its mission; giving comfort to those who come to “steal, kill and destroy”
(Jn 10.10) rather than following the “Good Shepherd” who has come for life for all (Jn
30. We believe that God calls men, women and children from every place together, rich
and poor, to uphold the unity of the church and its mission, so that the reconciliation to
which Christ calls can become visible.
31. Therefore we reject any attempt in the life of the church to separate justice and
32. We believe that we are called in the Spirit to account for the hope that is within us
through Jesus Christ, and believe that justice shall prevail and peace shall reign.
33. We commit ourselves to seek a global covenant for justice in the economy and the
earth in the household of God.
34. We humbly confess this hope, knowing that we, too, stand under the judgement of
We acknowledge the complicity and guilt of those who consciously or unconsciously
benefit from the current neoliberal economic global system; we recognize that this
includes both churches and members of our own Reformed family and therefore we call
for confession of sin.
We acknowledge that we have become captivated by the culture of consumerism, and
the competitive greed and selfishness of the current economic system. This has all too
often permeated our very spirituality.
We confess our sin in misusing creation and failing to play our role as stewards and
companions of nature.
We confess our sin that our disunity within the Reformed family has impaired our
ability to serve God’s mission in fullness.
35. We believe, in obedience to Jesus Christ, that the church is called to confess, witness
and act, even though the authorities and human law might forbid them, and punishment
and suffering be the consequence (Acts4.18ff). Jesus is Lord.
36. We join in praise to God, Creator, Redeemer, Spirit, who has “brought down the
mighty from their thrones, lifted up the lowly, filled the hungry with good things and sent
the rich away with empty hands” (Lk 1.52f).
Covenanting for Justice
37. By confessing our faith together, we covenant in obedience to God’s will as an act of
faithfulness in mutual solidarity and in accountable relationships. This binds us together
to work for justice in the economy and the earth both in our common global context as
well as our various regional and local settings.
38. On this common journey, some churches have already expressed their commitment
in a confession of faith. We urge them to continue to translate this confession into
concrete actions both regionally and locally. Other churches have already begun to
engage in this process, including taking actions and we urge them to engage further,
through education, confession and action. To those other churches, which are still in the
process of recognition, we urge them on the basis of our mutual covenanting
accountability, to deepen their education and move forward towards confession.
39. The General Council calls upon member churches, on the basis of this covenanting
relationship, to undertake the difficult and prophetic task of interpreting this confession
to their local congregations.
40. The General Council urges member churches to implement this confession by
following up the Public Issues Committee’s recommendations on economic justice and
41. The General Council commits the World Alliance of Reformed Churches to work
together with other communions, the ecumenical community, the community of other
faiths, civil movements and people’s movements for a just economy and the integrity of
creation and calls upon our member churches to do the same.
42. Now we proclaim with passion that we will commit ourselves, our time and our
energy to changing, renewing, and restoring the economy and the earth, choosing life, so
that we and our descendants might live (Deuteronomy 30.19).